中国农地大量征用 失地农民已达五千万 [Fifty Million Chinese Farmers Had Land Stolen]

中国农地大量征用 失地农民已达五千万 [Fifty Million Chinese Farmers Had
Land Stolen]

【大纪元2011年08月10日讯】中国社科院最新发布的报告指出,中国大陆目前失地农民达到4千万至5千万人左右,并且以每年大约3百万人的速度递增。估计到2030年时,中国失地农民的人数将增加到一亿一千万人。
据美国之音报导。这份由中国社科院城市发展与环境研究所发布的《2011年中国城市发展报告》指出,随着中国大陆的城市化和工业化速度加快,农村土地也被大量征用。

报告指出,按照2008年10月中国国土资源部发布的“全国土地利用总体规画纲要”,2000年至2030年间,中国占用耕地将超过5,450万亩,因此造成的失地农民将达到1.1亿人左右。

城市土地严重浪费

该报告并且指出,在大规模征地的同时,城市土地浪费与低效能利用现象十分严重。据“全国土地利用总体规画纲要”,中国大陆全境有26.67万公顷的土地被闲置。因此,征地规模确实大于实际的土地需求。

针对这种大规模民失地的现象,北京经济学家仲大军表示:“失地农民也分几种情况。有的失地农民一下子就有钱了,阔得不得了。有的失地农民就陷入困境。各地方是不一样的。你说像北京周边有些农民,都在盼望失地。一旦土地或者房舍重建,他们马上就变成百万、千万富翁。可是在下边一些省或县地区,很多农民一旦失地就陷入非常贫困的窘境。其实这个问题也不是现在的问题,已经是个一、二十年来的老问题了。”

中国社会转型关键

中国社科院的这份报告统计,农民陈情中有60%与土地有关,其中30%又跟征地有关。在失地农民中,有60%表示生活困难,有81%担心未来生活。因此,如何处理大量农民失地的问题,将成为中国社会转型的一个关键。

仲大军表示:“那就要看中国的工业发展能不能吸收适当的农业人口,把这些失地农民转换成工业或服务业的就业人口,从原来的第一产业——农业产业进入工业或服务业这个领域。如果中国能够比较好地进行这样一个产业转换,那么失地农民可能过上城市生活,摆脱过去那种艰苦的农业劳动,未尝不是一件好事。”

但是,仲大军强调,就目前来说,大部份失地农民是依靠征地的补偿金和其他救济金来或者打零工来过活,因此,解决这个问题还需要各方更多的努力。

另据中国国家统计局对失地农户的抽样调查,征地后安置就业的仅占百分之2点7;外出务工的占24.8%;经营二三产业的占27.3%;空闲在家的约占20%。

责任编辑:叶清青

http://www.epochtimes.com/gb/11/8/10/n3339802.htm

 

Fifty Million Chinese Farmers Had Land Stolen

Chinese think tank report reveals numbers behind land grabs

By Gary Pansey &
John Wang
Epoch Times Staff
Created: Aug 14, 2011 Last
Updated:
Aug 16, 2011

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Up to 50 million farmers have had their lands taken, and
most are not satisfied with the compensation they’re given, according to a
recent Chinese think tank study. (The Epoch Times)

Between 40 and 50 million Chinese farmers have lost their farmland since Deng
Xiaoping’s economic reforms began in the late 1970s, according to a recent
report from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS). The number is
increasing at a rate of three million farmers
per year, and will reach 110 million around 2030.

The report, titled
“China Urban Development Report of 2011″ and published by the Institute for
Urban and Environmental Studies of CASS, states that large areas of farmland
have been and are being expropriated as China’s industrialization and
urbanization accelerates.

According to the directive “national land use
planning” published by the Ministry of Land and Resources in October 2008, from
the years 2000 to 2030, over 8.6 million acres of farmland will be expropriated
and over 100 million farmers will lose their land.

The report also states
that, while farmland is being lost, there is a serious trend of urban land being
insufficiently utilized. According to the “national land use planning”
directive, there are about 657,000 acres of unused land in China. This leads to
the conclusion that the scale of land expropriation is greater than the actual
need.

Regarding the farmers who lost their land, the official news
website Red Net (rednet.cn) of Hunan Province reported a survey of 132 households on the issue on March 29. It stated
that 97 percent of farmers are not satisfied with the compensation.

The
standard compensation rate to the farmer for commercial land use is about
US$20,000 to US$35,000 per acre. But this farmland is often situated in a newly
developed urban area, which could fetch over 10 times its current
value.

The Director of the State Council’s Development Research Center,
Han Jun, said that, since the start of economic reforms to 2003, the Chinese
regime has taken US$312.8 billion from farmers by expropriating farmland at a
low price and then reselling it at a high price.

The Red Net survey also
stated that 85.6 percent of farmers do not have any kind of social security or
insurance, and that only 12 percent have medical
insurance. When asked what they fear the most, 15.9 percent said not
having medical insurance, 27.3 percent said not having retirement insurance and 75 percent said
unemployment.

The farmers who lost their land have no stable jobs and
income. After losing their ownership, rights to use and derive an income from
their farmland, they have no financial security.

Xu Zhiyong, a faculty
member at the Beijing Post and Telecommunications University, told China Youth Daily: “the dispute arising from
farmland expropriation is not a regional problem. It exists in almost every big
and small city, county, and township.”

According to statistics given in
the CASS report, among the farmers who appeal to higher authorities for help, 60
percent of the appeals are related to the farmland, and 30 percent are related
to land expropriation.

Among farmers who lost their land, 60 percent of
them said that they are in a state of economic hardship, and 81 percent are
worried about their future livelihoods.

According to a random sample of
2,942 farmers who lost their land, the National Bureau of Statistics of China
found that there are only 2.7 percent who received employment after expropriation; 24.8 percent went out to look
for work on their own; 27.3 percent have opened a small business; and 20 percent
stays at home, unemployed.

Sometimes, those who have had their land
taken from them have responded violently.

In May a series of explosions
hit Fuzhou City, Jiangxi Province, after Qian Mingqi, 52, failed to obtain
redress for land that was expropriated but for which he was never properly
compensated. After a decade of unsuccessfully attempting to get proper
compensation (he says his losses were up to two million yuan, or around
US$300,000), he set up a Sina Weibo account documenting his final thoughts, and
proceeded to make fertilizer bombs.

He said that he was left with no choice. “I wanted to
take genuine action to get rid of the bad guys for the people,” Qian said. He
was killed in one of the blasts.

In other cases people have climbed atop
their house roofs and set themselves on fire. In yet other cases people have
used violence against the gangs of thugs that are hired by local officials to
carry out the eviction and demolition work that is often involved in land
expropriation.

Read the original Chinese article.

chinareports@epochtimes.com

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